Sugar, Monosaccharides and Disaccharides In Detail

Sugar

What is sugar?

Sugar in chemistry is an organic compound that has the general chemical formula (CH2O)n  .

What is another name for sugar?

Sugar is also called saccharides. All sugar are carbohydrates but not all carbohydrates are called sugar. Examples of carbohydrates that are not sugar are starch and cellulose.

Level of sweetness of sugar

All sugar are sweet, but sugar differ in the degree of sweetness we perceive when we taste sugar.

  • Sucrose is about six times sweeter than lactose.
  • Sucrose is slightly sweeter than glucose.
  • Sucrose is half as sweet as fructose.

Sucrose is common table sugar. Maltose is malt sugar. Lactose is milk sugar. They are examples of disaccharides.

What happen when sucrose is hydrolyzed?

When sucrose is hydrolyzed, the mixture of glucose and fructose that forms is called invert sugar. The hydrolysis of sucrose produces invert sugar. Invert sugar is sweeter to the taste than sucrose.

Monosaccharides

What are Monosaccharides?

Monosaccharides are simple sugar such as fructose or glucose that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis.

Description of monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste. Sometimes monosaccharides are commonly known as monosaccharide sugar. Monosaccharides are classified by size according to the number of carbon atoms in the chain of the monosaccharides. For example monosaccharides called dioses has tow carbon ring backbone, monosaccharide trioses has three carbon ring backbone, and monosaccharides heptose has seven carbon ring backbone.

What is the general formula of monosaccharides?

The general formula of a monosaccharide is  CnH2nOn.

What are aldoses?

Monosacharides are further classified as aldoses. Aldoses are when carbonyl group is an aldehyde.

What are ketoses?

Monosaccharides are also further classified as ketoses. Ketoses are monosaccharides that contain a carbonyl or keto group in its straight chain form.

Disaccharides

Definition of disaccharides

Disaccharides are a form of sugar, a carbohydrate, created by linking a pair of monosaccharides. Monosaccharides are simple sugars.

Examples of disaccharides

Examples of disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. They are common disaccharides. Below are disaccharide examples.

What is sucrose?
  • Sucrose is glucose joined to fructose.
  • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
What is lactose?
  • Lactose is glucose joined with galactose.
  • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
What is maltose?
  • Maltose is two glucoses joined together.
  • 2x Glucose = Maltose

What is the difference between mono and disaccharides?

Monosaccharides are simple sugar. Disaccharides are made up of monosaccharides. The common features of disaccharides and hydrolysis disaccharides also show the difference between monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Disaccharides can be decomposed into monosaccharides. But, monosaccharides cannot be degraded by hydrolysis. However, disaccharides can be degraded by hydrolysis into monosaccharides. Hydrolysis disaccharides give monosaccharides.

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