Moreover, they also contain H, 0, 5, X etc. Carbon is the main component of the organic compound.
It does not mean that if a compound contains; it is organic because there are
many compounds which have & but they are not organic. eg. CO, CO2, HCN,
Na2CO3, NaHCO3, metal cyanides, metal carbides.
Main Features Of Organic Compounds:
Here are the features of organic compounds.
Peculiar Nature Of Carbon
Self linking of carbon atoms through covalent bond is called catenation . Catenation is the main reason for such a large number of compounds and it is a unique property of linking carbon atoms with each other to form long chains and rings.
Carbon also forms stable single and multiple bonds with other atoms like 0, N and S. It can thus form numerous compounds of various sizes, shapes and structure.
(2) Non -Ionic Character
Organic compounds are generally covalent compounds, therefore do not give ionic
(3) Rate Of Organic Reactions
The reactions involving organic compounds are slow in general and the yields are low. The
(4) Slowness to the organic reactions
It is due to molecular nature ot organic compounds. The rate of reactions of molecular compounds is slow because they involve cleavage and formation of bonds.
(6) Similarity In Behavior
The class of similar organic compounds (having same functional group) in
which consecutive members differ by -CH2- group (methylene group) and 14 units
by mass is called homologous series. The consecutive members are called
homologues. The members of series show similar chemical properties and there is a
gradual change in their physical properties as we move down the series.
Alkanes Carboxylic acid Alcohols
CH4 ) CH3COOH ) CH3OH )
Complexity Of Organic Compounds:
Organic molecules are usually large and structurally more complex. Proteins
are very complex molecules having molecular masses ranging from a few
thousands to a million.
Those compounds which have same molecular formulas but different structural formulas are called isomers of each other and this phenomenon is known as isomerism. However, they have different structural formulas.
Example: CH3—CH2—OH and CH3-O-CH3 (Ethyl alcohol Dimethyl ether)
Like dissolves like. Mostly covalent compounds are non-polar. So, they are soluble in non-polar solvents like benzene, ether etc.
Sources Of Organic Compounds
There are three main sources of organic compounds which are given as under.
· Natural Gas
It is a black mineral pressure High Pressure Anthracite 4—Bituminous. It is a rich source of organic compounds and energy. It is believed that coal in nature was formed from the remains of trees buried inside the earth crust some 500 million years ago. Due to the bacterial and chemical reactions on wood it got
converted into peat. Thus, at high temperature and pressure inside the earth crust, peat got transformed into coal.
Bacterial and chemical reactions High temperature and pressure
Wood ► Peat ► Lignite >> Dead plants and trees hurried under the earth
Classification of coal:
The coal is classified into 4 types on the basis of the %age of carbon.
It is the initial stage of coal formation
· It contains 60% carbon.
· It hashigh percentage of moisture and unchanged vegetable matter.
It is the next stage in the formation of coal
· It is fairly hard containing 67% ca rbon
· It has high percentage of moisture and unchanged vegetable matter.
· It is the third stage in the formation of coal
· It contains 83% of carbon.
· It is also used as a source of ener –
It is used for carbonization, for coke, coal tar and coal gas.
· It is the final stage in the formation of coaL
· It contains 85 to 98% carbon.
· It also contains some quantities of oxygen , hydrogen and nitrogen
· It is a shiny black, hard crystalline solid.