Introduction, Etymology, and branches of Chemistry

Chemistry

It is the branch of science which deals with the elements and compounds: their composition, structure, properties, behavior, and the changes during the reaction.

Chemistry

Central science

It is the central science. It provides basics for understanding other disciplines of science. For example, it describes important aspects of the plant (botany). the formation of igneous rocks (geology), the properties of the soil on the moon (astrophysics), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics)

Etymology

This word is derived from the word alchemy. Alchemy is the branch of natural philosophy which is the quest to turn lead or other base metals into gold. The word alchemy is derived from the Arabic word al-Kimia. This word is derived from the Greek word í. This word is derived from the word Kemet. The word Kemet is the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. 

 

Old and Modern Definitions 

It was defined differently with time. In1661, Robert Boyle used the term ‘chymistry’ for the material principles of mixed bodies. In 1663, Christopher Glaser used the term ‘chymistry’ for scientific art. This art was used to dissolve bodies and draw different substances from them. In 1730, Georg Ernst Stahl used the term ‘ chemistry’. He used it for the art of resolving mixed compounds into their principles and then composing from those principles.

In 1837, Jeans-Baptiste Dumas used this word for the laws and effects of molecular forces. In 1947, this definition was elaborated. It was used for the science of substances, their structure, their properties, and their reactions. In 1998, Raymond Chang defined it as the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

Branches

It is divided into several major branches. The major branches are discussed here.

Organic 

It is the branch that deals with the structure, properties, composition, mechanism, and reactions of organic compounds. Organic compounds are compounds in which carbon atoms are covalently bonded.

Inorganic

It is the branch that deals with the structure, properties, composition, mechanism, and reactions of inorganic compounds. All compounds except organic compounds are studied as inorganic compounds. Organometallic is the branch of this discipline. 

Analytical

It is the branch that deals with the instruments and methods to separate, identify, and quantify chemical substances.

Biochemistry

It is the branch that deals with chemical reactions taking place within living organisms. In medicinal and neurochemistry, organic and biochemistry are closely related.

Material Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the preparation, characterization, and understanding of substances with a useful function.

Physical Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the physical and fundamental basis of the chemical system. 

Nuclear Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with radioactivity and nuclear processes.

Neurochemistry

It is the branch that deals with neurochemicals such as a neurotransmitter, psychopharmaceutical, and neuropeptides.

Theoretical Chemistry

It is the branch that develops theoretical generalization.

Computational Chemistry

It is the branch that uses powerful computers to assist in solving chemical problems.

Environmental Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the chemical phenomena occurring in the environment.

Green Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the processes and products that eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. 

Polymer Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the chemical synthesis, structure, and properties of the polymer.

Industrial Chemistry

It is the branch that deals with the transformation of matter into useful products.

Research and development in this field

Chemists research in various fields like the development of high-quality food, manufacturing chemicals, environmental protection. They control the changes occurring in this environment. They aim to make this planet a better living place for a human. The research is done at universities and government institutes.

For halogen

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